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PROGRESSIVE TAXES, REGRESSIVE TAXES, AND PROPORTIONAL TAXES

The Difference between Marginal and Average Tax Rates

The United States individual income tax system has a progressive structure. This means that households earning more pay a higher tax rate. The tax brackets for married couples and individuals have been changed by the recent tax reform.

A person who earns $100,000 or more is considered to be in the 24% marginal tax bracket under the new system. For every dollar earned above $100,000, and up to $157,000.500, this person pays $24 federal income tax per $100 earned. This person will still pay 10% on the first $9,875 earned. However, 12% of next bracket earnings, 22% of next bracket earnings, etc. This means that the average tax this person pays will be less than 24%

The marginal tax rate in the new system is lower for most taxpayers. A standard deduction is also available at a higher level ($12,400 for single filers, and $24,800 to joint filers). Individuals who itemize get fewer deductions. The $10,000 limit for state and local taxes (which includes state and local income and sales taxes) is an example. The first $750,000 in mortgage debt is exempted from mortgage interest deductions.

Interest on home equity loans, even those that were taken out prior to December 31, 2017, will not be deducted. Long-term capital gains (income from selling stocks, bonds, and other financial assets) continue to be subject to marginal tax rates ranging from 0% to 20% (0-15, or 20% depending on your income). Additional 3.8% net investment taxes are charged to high-income taxpayers. Capital gains that are less than one year old are subject to the regular individual income tax rate. For a summary of all of the 2018 tax reform changes, see

 Calculating Tax
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For example, a $100,000-earning individual is in the 24% marginal bracket. This person pays 10% on the first $9,525 earned, 12% on the amount in the next bracket, and so forth.

Consider the following individuals who filed as one person to illustrate the tax total and the difference between marginal and average rates.

Individual 1
The person has a taxable income of $6,000. london-post. The marginal tax rate for this person is 10%. The total tax paid equals $6,000 multiplied by 10% or $600. The average tax is the sum of the total tax paid and the total income. This is $600 divided by $6,000 or.10 or 10%. The marginal and average tax rates for this person are the same.

Individual 2
The taxable income for this person is $25,000. The marginal tax rate for this person is 12%. He pays 10% on the first $9,875. He then pays 12% on the $15,125 remaining. The total tax equals
(.10 x $9.875) + (.12x $15.125) = $987.50. $1,815 = 2,802.50. His average tax rate is 2,802.50 divided with $25,000 or.1121 or 11.21%. His marginal tax rate of 12% is higher than his average tax rate (11.11%).

Individual 3
Let’s assume that this person has $100,000 in taxable income. Her marginal tax rate for this person is 24%. The first $9,875 is paid 10%. Next, she pays 10% over the first $9,875. The total tax paid by this person is:
(.10x $9,875) + (+.12x $30,250), + (.22x $45,400), + (.24x $14,475) = $987.50. + $3.630 + $9.988 + $3.474 = $18,079.50. Her average tax rate is $18,079.50 divided with $100,000. This equals 18.08%. Her marginal tax rate of 24% is also lower at 18.08%.

The marginal tax rate for anyone in the 12% marginal tax bracket or higher is generally higher than the average progressive tax rate.

Tax deductions

The current federal, state and local income tax systems allow households the ability to deduct various expenses from their gross income. The gross income fewer tax deductions equal the taxable income. A $750,000 mortgage is exempt from tax, so the interest paid each year on a mortgage can deduct. Other deductions include state and local taxes (up to $10,000), real estate taxes, loan points, certain retirement benefits, capital gains losses, and certain health care expenses. If the income of the person is $100,000 and they have $40,000 in deductible expenses then their/his taxable income (adjusted Gross Income, or AGI), is $60,000. This person will pay fewer taxes because of deductions than if they had to pay $100,000.

Tax Systems

A progressive tax is the Federal individual income tax system, which we have already discussed. You can also have proportional or progressive taxes. These systems are describe below.

  • Progressive tax

A progressive tax system means that higher-income earners are subject to a higher marginal rate of tax than those with lower incomes. The table at the top shows the federal marginal tax rates, which range from 10% to 37%. A single person earning $20,000 in taxable income falls within the 12% tax bracket. This means that every dollar this person earns (until he attains the next higher bracket) will be subject to a 12% federal income tax.

We can see it in the above examples NotThis means that 12% of her/his income is subject to taxes. Only 10% is charge on the first $9,875 The remainder, up to $20,000, is subject to 12%.

Proportional tax
A proportional tax system means that high-income and low-income individuals pay the same tax rate. The majority of the United States individual income tax systems for state and local taxes are proportional. A person earning $10,000 will pay 5%. State Income taxes are 5% for those earning $500,000 and above. Economists favor a proportional, but not absolute, tax.FlatTax for our federal income tax system The majority of flat tax proposals don’t allow for many deductions, with the exception of an exemption to pay any taxes for households with lower incomes. It is therefore very easy.

The United States has a standard Social Security tax that everyone must pay up to a threshold ($137,700 in 2020). The Social Security tax is proportional up to the threshold. It becomes regressive after the threshold. An income earner who earns more than $137,000.00 per year will pay 0% Social Security tax. Your employer matches your Social Security tax, which is 6.2% of your income. shafranik. The government then receives 12.4%. Medicare taxes apply to all income. They are 1.45% and matched with your employer (so that the government receives 2.9%).

  1. Regressive tax

A regressive tax system means that low-income earners are subject to a higher tax rate than those with higher incomes. A person earning $10,000 will pay 20% tax and someone making $100,000 will pay 10%. Regressive sales taxes are common in most states. Low-income households spend most of their income on consumer goods. If all products are subject to a 5% sales tax, they will pay 5% of their income in sales tax. Consumer products are typically only part of a household’s income. They pay less than 5% as a percentage of their income. Exempting the sales tax from the sales tax is one way that some states attempt to avoid the regressive nature. Essential consumer products, such as clothing and food, are available.

Alternative Minimum Tax

A person may be subject to an alternative minimum tax if he or she applies too many deductions so that the total taxes fall below a certain amount. To ensure that everyone pays the minimum amount of taxes, the alternative minimum tax create in the United States.

Other common taxes

There are many other taxes, in addition to those mentioned above. We have already discussed FICA (Social Security & Medicare) tax. Corporations pay income taxes at a maximum rate of 21 percent. Most local governments collect income taxes and property taxes. The majority of states collect income taxes and sales taxes. Other federal taxes include capital gains taxes, excise taxes, and estate taxes. Although it is similar to sales taxes, an excise tax is typically levied on products like gasoline, tobacco, and spray cans. Capital gains tax is a tax that is paid on an asset that has increase in value. A capital gains tax is impose on income earn after a person buys stock worth $10,000 and then sells it for $14,000 two years later. If someone dies, they must pay estate taxes. If the estate’s value exceeds a certain level, the estate tax will pay by the heirs.

 

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